The study of PADE’s effects on the reproductive function of male rats was carried out in accordance with the “Guidelines for conducting preclinical studies of drugs” [15]. Three to 4-month-old female (180–200 g) and male (200–250 g) Wistar rats were obtained from the animal nursery “Andreevka,” a branch of FSBIS of the Scientific Center of Biomedical Technologies of the Medical and Biological Agency, Russia. Animals were housed in the VILAR biomedical clinic for at least 3 weeks before experiment initiation. Animals were housed five rats of the same gender in a plastic cage before mating and one male and two females during mating. Animals were kept under controlled environmental conditions of light (12-h light cycle), temperature (20–22 °C), and humidity (40–60%) with free access to standard chow and water. At the end of each experiment, adult animals and offspring were euthanized by CO2 inhalation. Feti were considered to be euthanized after confirmed euthanasia and death of the mother. The study protocol has been approved by the VILAR Ethical Committee on Animal Experimentation and carried out per the “European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals Used for Experimental and other Scientific Purposes (ETS 123). Strasbourg, 1986”. The study evaluating effects of PADE on male rat reproductive health were conducted under “Guidelines for conducting preclinical studies of drugs” implemented by the Ministry of Public Health of the Russian Federation [16].

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