Preoxygenation was done in a semi-recumbent position of patients at 30 °C for 3–5 min. Intubation care bundle management was included the pre-intubation presence of two operators, systematic fluid loading (500 mL normal saline (Baxter pharmaceuticals, Deerfield, Illinois, USA)) using 0.2–0.3 mg/ kg etomidate (Etomidate-Lipuro, B. Braun Melsungen AG, Melsungen, Germany) or 1.5–3 mg/ kg ketamine (Ketalar®, Par Pharmaceutical Chestnut Ridge, NY, USA), combined with 0.6–1 mg/ kg rocuronium (Fresenius-Kabi Inc., Lake Zurich, IL, USA) or 1 mg/ kg succinylcholine (Anectine®, Sandoz, Sanofi-Aventis, Princeton, NJ, USA) [3]. If intubation was not successful then video laryngoscopy was adopted. If video laryngoscopy was not successful then surgical tracheostomy (using Tracheostomy tube, F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG, Basel, Switzerland) was adopted. After endotracheal intubation, patients were mechanically ventilated (CARAT II PRO, Hoffrichter GmbH, Mettenheimerstraße, Schwerin, Germany) at 6–8 mL/ kg tidal volume, 25–30 breaths/ min respiratory rate, 5 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure, and 1.0 fraction of inspired oxygen to maintain 90% or above pulse oximetry (Masimo, Irvine, CA, USA). The partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio was calculated as per Eq. (1) [2].

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