The anti-impact experiment was performed according to the methods described in previous studies [34]. Briefly, a circular cavity with diameter of 2.5 cm were created in the center of a fresh porcine thigh tissue, and a syringe pump filled with phosphate buffered saline (PBS, 0.05 mol/L, pH = 7.4 ± 0.2) was connected to the bottom of the tissue cavity. After the experiment started, the syringe pump started to pump PBS into the cavity. As soon as PBS flowed out of the hole on the top of the tissue cavity, the materials (particles with diameter of 9 mm and height of 5 mm) were filled into the tissue cavity immediately. A data acquisition system was used to measure the generated stress. The flow rate of the solution was constantly increased via the pump to exert a continuous and increasing pressure on the materials in the cavity. The stress required to push the samples out of the tissues were recorded to simulate the stress of the arterial blood flow impacting the samples in the wound cavity. The maximum stress before pressure loss was considered the anti-impact force. Medical gauze was tested under the same conditions. All the tests were repeated three times.

To visually observe the expansion performance of the CMCP, and its shape adaptability to the tissue, a random shaped cavity (30-mm wide, 40-mm high, and 100-mm long) was created in a piece of porcine thigh muscle tissue. The contrast agent combined samples were then crammed into the cavity followed by adding fresh whole blood. After sufficient interactions, the position of the CMCP samples in tissue as well as their shape changes during absorbing blood were observed using Micro-CT.

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