The volume expansion (VE) of CMCP composites was analyzed using the following Eq (1).

where V0 and Vn refer to the volume of samples before and after self-expansion, respectively.

The dynamic expansion force test of materials was performed based on the method described in previous literature [27,30]. Cylindrical sample (50 mg) with a diameter of 9 mm and a height of 5 mm was used in this test. Briefly, the sample was placed between the compression platen and the operate board of the Texture Analyzer (TAXT plus, Stable Micro Systems, UK). Trigger force of 0.1 N was applied before the test started. After pre-loading, citrated whole blood (collected from healthy donors) was added to initiate the expansion of sample. The distance between the compression platen and the operate board remained constant throughout the test, while the expansion force exerted by the expansion of the sample was continuously measured for 5 min. The buoyancy force exerted by blood was also measured. The dynamic expansion forces were calculated through subtracting the buoyancy force from the raw force.

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