FT-IR spectra of different materials were obtained on a TENSOR II spectrometer (Bruker, Germany). The spectra were taken over the wavenumber range of 600–4000 cm−1, with a scanning resolution of 4 cm−1, and each sample was scanned for 15 times. The morphology of the samples was observed using a SU8020 (Japan) field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) operating at 10 kV. Samples were freeze-dried and sputtered with gold before observation. The average pore sizes were determined from the optical microscopy (OM) (BK300. OPTEC, China) images of different materials using Image J software (Version 1.50 h. National Institutes of Health, U.S.). The porosity of different materials was measured by mercury intrusion method through using a PoreMaster 33 mercury porosity analyzer.

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