The surface and cross-sections of the MS were observed under a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The elemental analysis of BaSO4 NPs, PVA/CS, and BaSO4@PVA/CS MS was carried out by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). A field emission transmission electron microscope (FETEM) was used to study the morphology of the synthesized BaSO4 NPs. The size distribution of BaSO4 NPs was determined from different FETEM images. The chemical compositions of BaSO4 NPs, PVA/CS, and BaSO4@PVA/CS MS were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The crystalline state of BaSO4 NPs loaded into the BaSO4@PVA/CS MS was determined by an X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed at a heating rate of 10 °C/min. The immobilization of thrombin on the surface of BaSO4@PVA/CS MS was determined through X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS, Kratos Axis Ultra DLD, Japan) analysis. The X-ray radiopacity test of the MS was performed on a 128-row CT scanner. The images were recorded and then transferred to an external workstation for further analysis. The characterization details are provided in the Supporting Information.

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