Hof et al.25,26 used an inverted pendulum model of the human body and suggested that, for dynamic stability of walking and standing, the body XCOM should remain within the BOS limits:

where PCOM and VCOM are the body’s COM position and velocity, g is the gravitational acceleration and l is the equivalent trochanteric length of each participant. They defined the margin of stability (b) as the shortest distance between the XCOM and the BOS boundaries, and calculated it for every instant. The most unstable moment is when the value of b is minimum (bmin) within a step. We chose bmin because it is the most widely used biomechanical stability measure in the literature7,25,37. We calculated bmin for each step and considered the average of bmin among all steps (bmin,avg) as a measure of stability during a walking trial.

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