The primary outcome of interest was overall PDAC survival in patients who used beta blockers compared to patients who did not use beta blockers in the 6 months before cancer diagnosis. Survival time was defined as the time from the diagnosis of PDAC to death. Since pancreatic cancer has a high mortality rate, mortality was expected to reflect pancreatic cancer-related survival, as has been reported in other studies using SEER17. As a secondary analysis, we performed a subgroup analysis of patients with PDAC who had continuous Part D Medicare coverage in the 6 months before and after diagnosis to determine the overall survival effect of beta blocker use surrounding PDAC diagnosis.

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