The mice received tail-vein injections of buffer (100 μl), T-16A-H (20 μM, 100 µl) or Aptarray (~560 nM, 100 μl). Five minutes later, the mice were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of phenobarbital (100 mg/kg) and the distal 1 mm of the tails were amputated. The tail was immersed for 15 min in 1 ml of saline warmed to 37 °C. Blood loss was determined as previously described37, by measuring the absorbance of saline at 560 nm and comparing the result to a standard curve constructed from known volumes of mouse blood. For neutralization study, the mice first received Aptarray (~560 nM, 100 µl) by tail-vain injection. Fivefold DNA antidote solution was then administered by intravenous injection. Blood loss from the tail wound was collected for 15 min after tail transection, and was measured as described previously.

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