All data were analysed by GraphPad Prism6 (version 6.00 for Mac OS X). The data are presented as means ± standard deviations. One-way analysis of variance was used for comparisons among groups when data exhibited normal distributions; the Tukey test was used for post hoc analysis. The Kruskal–Wallis test was used for comparisons when data did not exhibit normal distributions; Dunnett’s test was used for post hoc analysis. To compare differences among groups at different time points, two-way analysis of variance was used. P < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance.

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