All cell lines were purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA, USA) unless stated otherwise. Human embryonic kidney 293T cells (HEK293T), mouse brain endothelial cells (bEnd.3) were maintained in high-glucose DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS, 100 U/ml penicillin and 100 U/ml streptomycin. Cell line authentication was performed by short tandem repeat DNA profiling and comparison with a reference database. The cells were cultured at 37 °C, 5% CO2 and were routinely tested for mycoplasma contamination.

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