To investigate and describe the CWSI, a relationship based on two parameters of (Tc − Ta) and AVPD is presented as follows10, and the line obtained by this equation is called the lower baseline (L.L)6:

where Tc is the canopy cover temperature (°C), Ta air temperature (°C), AVPD air vapor pressure deficit (mbar), RH relative humidity (%), a and b are the different constant coefficients for crops and fruit trees. The lower baseline is a special characteristic of each plant and represents the conditions where the plant has no limitations on root water supply, and the air vaporization rate is at its maximum10. The upper baseline (U.L) also represents the maximum (Tc − Ta) expected. The upper baseline status is obtained using the following relation10:

where AVPG is the air vapor pressure gradient (mbar) and coefficients a and b are obtained from the lower baseline (Eq. (2)). The empirical CWSI is also calculated by the following equation10:

where (Tc − Ta)m is the difference between the canopy temperature and air temperature (pre-irrigation) at the time of measurement (°C), (Tc − Ta)L.L is the difference between the canopy temperature and air temperature (post-irrigation), which is obtained from the lower baseline equation. (Tc − Ta)U.L is a constant for the upper baseline (post-irrigation).

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