The measurement data were expressed as the mean ± SEM, and the count data were expressed with percentage. The differences between the groups were assessed by one-way ANOVA with least significant difference (LSD) post-hoc analyses. All of the statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences for Windows software, version 18.0 (SPSS Co., Inc., Chicago, IL). The statistical significance of all tests was defined as a P value of < 0.05 determined by two-tailed tests.

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