Colonies were visited weekly during the winter (Nov–Jan) from 2013 to 2018 to identify residents through resightings. Any individual detected in Seville or Cádiz between 01 November and 15 January was considered a resident bird-year for the breeding season immediately following (date thresholds represent a two-week buffer around our earliest observations of known migratory individuals). Additionally, one bird was a confirmed migrant from an opportunistic resighting in Senegal in 2017.

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