All animal experiments were approved by the ethical committee of University of Toyama (G2015MED-38 and A2013MED-33), and performed in accordance with animal experiment guidelines and regulations in University of Toyama. Female, CD206 DTR mice, from 12 to 20-weeks-old mice were used. We housed in a specific pathogen-free (SPF) animal facility with a controlled environment, 22–24 °C and 60–70% relative humidity, and on a light/dark cycle (12 h light/12 h dark) with food and water ad libitum. CD206 DTR mice are genetically engineered transgenic (Tg) mice based on the transgenic expression of the diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) under the control of the CD206 promoter to ablate CD206+ MΦs31,32,34 specifically. In CD206 DTR mice, CD206+ MΦs are removed about more than 80% in various organs systemically, such as lung, adipose tissue, blood, spleen, and ovary31,32,34. Induction of endometriosis was studied as described previously7. Briefly, mice were injected s.c. with 100 μg/kg estradiol valerate in sesame oil once per week for three weeks. After three weeks, endometrium-rich fragments from donor mice were finely chopped using a razor blade. Fragments suspended in 0.6 ml phosphate buffered salts (PBS) were injected with an 18-gauge needle through the abdominal wall into the peritoneal cavity of recipient mice with the ratio of one donor to two recipients (designated day 0 when endometrial fragments were injected). We used wild type mice as donors and CD206 DTR mice as recipients. One week after endometrial inoculation, we checked the formation of endometriotic-like lesions in the peritoneal cavity by sacrificing a few mice. Then, the recipient mice underwent intraperitoneal injection of DT (DT group) or PBS for control group, every two days. DT of 20 ng/gram body weight was diluted with sterile PBS and injected intraperitoneally31. Two weeks after the inoculation of endometrial fragments, the recipient mice were sacrificed through cervical dislocation under anesthesia. Then, PBS (1 ml) was injected into the peritoneal cavity. After vigorous shaking, peritoneal fluid (PF) and PF cells were collected. Laparotomy was performed, and the numbers of endometriotic foci were counted. Each focus and uterus was excised to exclude as much normal surrounding tissues as possible. Immediately, the weight of the excised tissues was measured. During all the inspection procedures, examiners were blinded to the treatment given to each mouse.

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