This is a longitudinal study from a nationwide, prospective cohort of pre-dialysis CKD patients in Korea, entitled KNOW-CKD, which enrolled adult (20–75 years old) predialysis patients with CKD stages G1–G5 from nine centers between 2011 and 201616. Of the 2238 subjects enrolled in the study, 59 patients without follow-up data were excluded; therefore, 2,179 patients were included in the final analysis (Fig. 1). Informed consent was obtained from all patients voluntarily at the time of enrollment. The study was approved by the institutional review board (IRB) of each participating hospital: Seoul National University Hospital (H-1704-025-842), Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (B-1106/129-008), Yonsei University Severance Hospital (4-2011-0163), Kangbuk Samsung Medical Center (2011-01-076), Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital (KC11OIMI0441), Gil Hospital (GIRBA2553), Eulji General Hospital (201105-01), Chonnam National University Hospital (CNUH-2011-092), and Pusan Paik Hospital (11-091). This study follows the guidelines of the 2008 Declaration of Helsinki.

Flowchart of the enrolled study population.

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