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A qualitative study was conducted in September 2019 in Szczecin, Poland. Four focus groups, with 7; 6; 4; 5 participants respectively, were held with Ukraine community members, recruited through a snowball sampling method in the Szczecin area with the inclusion criteria of age between 18 and 45 years, and been resident in Poland for a minimum of 6 months.

UMs were identified through general practices in Szczecin region and advertisements in Twitter and Facebook pages. Eligible UMs included parents and men and women belonging to the target groups for vaccinations, such as early child vaccinations regarding migrants’ children living in Poland and missing vaccinations (measles) in the adult population, as well as HPV and influenza vaccinations for adolescents/adults. All of the invited UMs were met at the Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Poland.

Theoretical sampling was used, based on the emerging ideas in the analysis process as the criterion for additional data collection [2326]. After the research topic and question were identified, the first group of UMs was invited to a focus group interview (Table 1). This was based on the demographic structure of the population of UMs in Poland [27] and included individuals representing adequate proportions regarding age, males/females ratio, participants with secondary/university degree, having/not having a child, in terms to sufficiently explore facilitators and barriers to vaccination and related access to Polish healthcare services. Following this initial focus group interview, the researchers met in a classroom at the Pomeranian Medical University and analysed the data. Based on the results from this round of data analysis, they identified more UMs to interview. As female migrants from the first group seemed to pattern their practices along their own, or close-relation’s experiences, whereas males provided more general comments in the first focus group, researchers decided to purposefully invite females and males in separate groups to further explore this theory. In addition, due to the fact that the first focus group comprised of UMs who already spent 2–4 years in Poland, the researchers decided to look for participants that have stayed in Poland for a shorter time to confirm/disconfirm previous findings, specifically about vaccination practices and access to Polish healthcare services; such participants formed the second focus group. An additional theory was that education level could shape opinions on vaccination. Therefore, the second focus group had been formed with participants having completed up to the secondary education. The researchers conducted interviews with that newly selected group of females and then analysed the data collected. Theoretical sampling continued like this, moving back-and-forth between sampling, data collection, and analysis, until the researchers reached the point of repetition of responses in the fourth group, and they felt they would fail to collect new information with subsequent group interviews [2325].

Characteristics of the participants, 2019; n = 22

aAccording to alphabetical order of participant’s initials

bBack-and-forth travels to Ukraine while staying in Poland

Participants were briefed prior to interviews; confidentiality was emphasised and that their insights into the Ukrainian community in general not only personal opinions were sought. Before the focus group, participants were asked to complete a consent form (in Ukrainian and Polish) and a short pro-forma about their socio-demographic profile (age, gender, education level, number of children), length of stay in Poland and vaccination status. Refreshments and transport to the meeting point was offered and each participant was compensated to the equivalent of £10.

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