Data were obtained on May 22, 2020, from a sample of 660 US-based Amazon Mechanical Turk (mTurk) users ages 18 and older (individuals must be age 18 or older to enroll as an mTurk worker). A relatively new data collection platform, mTurk allows for rapid, inexpensive data collection mirroring quality that has been observed through traditional data collection methods [46, 47], including generally high reliability and validity [48]. Though not a mechanism for probability sampling [48], mTurk samples appear to mirror the US population in terms of intellectual ability [49] and most, but not all, sociodemographic characteristics [50].

To ensure data quality, minimum qualifications were specified to initiate the survey (task approval rating > 97%, successful completion of more than 100, but fewer than 10,000 tasks, US-based IP address) [50]. Additional checks were embedded within the survey to screen out potential use of virtual private networks (VPNs) to mimic US-based IP addresses, eliminate bots, and manage careless responses [51]. Failing at these checkpoints resulted in immediate termination of the task and exclusion from the study, but no other exclusion criteria were applied. Participants who successfully completed the survey were compensated $1.00 USD.

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