Data are expressed as mean ± standard error of means (SEM). The mean differences in body weight, food intake, ulcer assessment, and biochemical parameters among different groups (n = 10–12 per group) were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Fisher’s least significant difference test. Comparisons of the differences in relative abundance, alpha diversity, and beta diversity of gastric microbiota among different groups (n = 5 per group) were performed by Kruskal–Wallis one-way ANOVA followed by Wilcoxon-Mann–Whitney test. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Statistical significance is assigned at p < 0.05.

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