For all baseline measures, a mean value over 30 s (i.e., 30‐s bin) that appeared most stable and representative for each participant's baseline was calculated from a 1‐min section at least 30‐s prior to the first HVR test. For cardiovascular variables, we quantified beat‐by‐beat HR (min‐1) and MAP (mm Hg). For respiratory variables, we quantified respiratory rate (R R; min−1), breath‐by‐breath inspired volume (V TI; L), inspired ventilation (V̇I, L/min; the product of breath‐by‐breath VT and R R), P ETCO2 and P ETO2 (Torr; BTPS), and ScO2 (%; calculated from the equation described by Severinghaus, 1979). ScO2 was also used to avoid the well‐described delay in measuring peripheral pulse oximetry (Trivedi et al., 1997) and the known differences between SpO2 and ScO2 in hypoxic conditions (Pfoh & Day, 2016; Pfoh et al., 2016, 2017). We estimated V̇CO2 from I and peak fraction of expired (F E)CO2 values in the steady state in both normoxia and hypoxia ( I × FECO2/2), corrected for STPD (0.813 conversion factor).

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