Articles were screened with the following inclusion criteria: (1) RCT, (2) population of patients diagnosed with CFS and/or ME, (3) an evaluation of the efficacy of a physiotherapeutic intervention (i.e. physical activity/exercise therapies, manual therapies, body awareness, electrotherapy techniques or health education), (4) outcome measures evaluating physical or mental symptoms and/or functioning, including quality of life.

Articles were excluded when they (1) were not available in full text, (2) were not written in English, Dutch or a Scandinavian language, (3) had an exclusive underage patient population, (4) had a follow-up article of a primary study published before 2000 or (5) had a poor methodological quality (PEDro score 0–3).

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