All patients underwent contrast-enhanced imaging with a 128-slice scanner (LightSpeed VCT, GE Medical systems, USA). Examinations were performed during a single breath-hold in the supine position. The scanning coverage was from the neck to the middle of the kidneys. Before CT image acquisitions, 100 to 200 mL water was used as the oral negative contrast material of esophagus. After routine non-enhanced CT, the contrast-enhanced CT scan was started 25–30 s after an intravenous administration of 1.5 mL/kg of the iodinated contrast material (Omnipaque, Iohexol, GE Healthcare, USA) at a rate of 3.0 to 3.5 mL/s for a total of 70–100 mL tailored to body weight at the ratio of 1.5 mL/kg weight via a pump injector (Vistron CT Injection System, Medrad, USA). A saline flush followed the administration of the contrast agent. The CT parameters were as follows: 120 kVp of peak voltage, 280 mA of tube current, 0.5 s of rotation time, 64 mm × 0.625 mm of detector collimation, 5 mm of slice thickness, and a matrix of 512 mm × 512 mm. Subsequently, the CT data were directly transferred to the General Electric Advantage Workstation 4.4 for data analysis.

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