Anesthesia was performed using an intramuscular injection of a mixture of xylazine hydrochloride (2.0 mg/kg, Rompun, Bayer, Seoul, Korea) and ketamine hydrochloride (1.0 mg/kg, Hospira, Lake Forest, CA, USA). Sublingual metoprolol (1.25 mg/kg, AstraZeneca, London, UK) was given to reduce the heart rate. Before CMR, the forelimb vein of each beagle was prepared for intravenous contrast agent injection, and blood was drawn for laboratory Hct analysis. The electrocardiogram (ECG) electrodes were placed on the chest of the beagles, and the dogs were free-breathing during the CMR scanning.

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