All patients with HBV-related chronic liver disease who underwent percutaneous liver biopsy in the ultrasound unit of the Department of Infectious Disease in Ruijin Hospital between November 2018 and October 2019 were screened for inclusion. The exclusion criteria were as follows: (I) patients with regular alcohol consumption in the past 12 months, which was defined as more than 140 grams per week for men or more than 70 grams per week for women; (II) patients with other liver diseases that could cause steatosis, such as an infection or combined infection with other hepatitis virus, drug-induced liver injury, Wilson’s disease, autoimmune hepatitis; (III) patients with total parenteral nutrition, liver transplantation patients, other end-stage medical diseases, or malignant tumors; (IV) patients with an aspartate aminotransferase (AST) or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level >5 times the upper limit of normal values; (V) patients with a skin-to-liver capsule distance of >25 mm, or a body mass index (BMI) of ≥28 kg/m2.

For all enrolled patients, blood samples, liver stiffness measurement, CAP and LiSA assessment, and liver biopsy were performed on the same day. The following information was also collected at the time of liver steatosis evaluation: weight, height, waist circumference, arterial hypertension, diabetes, and alcohol and tobacco use.

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