Three-dimensional CT images of the half-translucent lung including the pulmonary nodule(s) and VATS marker(s) were displayed side-by-side with a thoracoscopy display during surgery to clarify the positional relationship between the marker and the tumor (Figure 5D). The ICG-FL VATS marker was visualized by the PINPOINT® endoscopic fluorescence imaging system (Stryker, Kalamazoo, MI) (Figure 2E,F, Figure 4D). The part of the lung thought to contain the tumor was partially excised with an endo-stapler. Successful removal was confirmed by rapid pathological diagnosis.

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