The straight-line distance connecting the center points of both the VATS marker and the target lung mass was measured on the CT workstation (Figure 5A,B,C). The primary outcome was set as the marking accuracy (i.e., the straight-line distance between a target pulmonary nodule and the corresponding VATS marker), and the secondary outcomes were defined as the detection rate of fluorescent VATS markers and the incidence of adverse events.

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