As part of the Older Adult Research Panel, participants are invited to perform a battery of cognitive tests upon intake, and again every two years thereafter. Where participants had not been (re)tested within two years prior to the scan date, they were asked to resit the test battery as part of their participation of this study. For four participants, the resit data for the executive function tests was not successfully collected (see supplementary material for further details). Tests included, amongst others, verbal fluency (Miller, 1984) and trail making tests (Reitan and Wolfson, 1985). The verbal fluency test included a letter and a semantic/category component. Participants were asked to name out loud as many words as possible in one minute starting with the letter F and then name as many animals as possible in one minute. The session was recorded and the experimenter counted the number of correct words, ignoring duplicates. For the trail making test, participants were tasked with drawing a line as quickly as possible to connect the elements in a sequence, initially with one category (numbers) and then with two alternating categories (numbers and letters). The time for both tasks was recorded and scores were obtained by dividing time (number and letters) / time (numbers).

Other tests that were part of the Older Adult Research Panel test battery were collected but were not included in the composite score due to a lack of compatible historical data (e.g. switching from paper-and-pencil based tasks to computerised tasks, such as for the Stroop task), and are not reported here.

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