Sample size and sampling procedures
This protocol is extracted from research article:
Poultry disease occurrences and their impacts in Ethiopia
Trop Anim Health Prod, Jan 3, 2021; DOI: 10.1007/s11250-020-02465-6

As per the sampling framework of the ACGG project (ILRI-ACGG 2015), twenty-two districts from four out of total nine regions and Addis Ababa city administration were considered to represent high chicken rearing potential of the country in the ACGG project, as they were selected based on preset criteria. The criteria were set by workshop participants who came from different parts of the country and who are knowledgeable in poultry production of the country. The criteria used by the project to select the regions, districts, and Kebele were number of chicken, number of (smallholder) households rearing chicken, percent contribution of chicken to household income/nutrition, percent market share captured by smallholder poultry farmers, availability of feed resources for a growing chicken industry, and fair diversity in terms of agro-ecology and geographical locations across the regions. Moreover, other criteria such as cost-effectiveness, accessibility, security concerns, distance from Addis Ababa (Capital city of Ethiopia), and others such logistical issues were also used after the regions were ranked using the abovementioned criteria. According to the above criteria, four regions, one city administration (Addis Ababa), and 22 districts from the designated regions and city were selected. Then, the kebele (village as per ACGG) were randomly selected from the selected 22 districts considering agro-ecological situations within a district and accessibility as additional criteria.

For this study, one up to three district(s) was/were randomly selected from each of the four regions (Oromia, Amhara, SNNP, and Tigray) and Addis Ababa city administration (Fig. (Fig.1).1). Accordingly, two to three Kebele per the designated district were randomly selected from the ACGG beneficiary Kebele found in the district. Finally, the chicken-owning households/chicken owners found in each of those Kebele were then randomly selected. Replacement for unwilling randomly selected households was replaced by their neighbors who agreed to participate in the survey.

Hence, EpiTools epidemiological calculators as per Sergeant (2009) and Charan and Biswas (2013) was used to calculate sample size for the cross-sectional survey. Accordingly, the total sample size for the 10 districts was 595 (approximately 60 participants per district), considering 50% estimated proportion of chicken flocks with history of disease or chicken mortality, 5% desired precision, and 95% confidence level.

Moreover, in each study district except one, a focus group discussion (FGDs) was conducted, with 10–15 participants who were purposively selected using preset criteria. The tenth FGD was not conducted due to security issue. The FGD participants were selected from chicken farmers who own five and above chickens, are reported to have basic knowledge on poultry diseases and their impacts, willing to participate, and were ACGG project beneficiaries. Moreover, gender, age, and geographic representations of the discussants in each district were also used as additional preset criteria.

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