2.2. Inclusion and exclusion criteria for general semantics
This protocol is extracted from research article:
The neural correlates of semantic control revisited
Neuroimage, Jan 1, 2021; DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117444

The same inclusion and exclusion criteria were used for the general semantic contrast except those relating to the nature of the contrast. This contrast was designed to capture all aspects of semantic cognition, including both representation and control processes, by contrasting a semantic with a baseline non-semantic condition. Studies were only included in this contrast if they compared more > less semantic cognition, either by contrasting a semantic with a non- (or less) semantic task or meaningful (or known) with meaningless (or unknown) stimuli (including intelligibility assessments). This did not include comparison of high and low familiarity (as either could elicit more semantic processing) or imageability (as both concrete and abstract items require semantic processing and the nature of this processing may differ in numerous ways). Studies recruiting rest (or fixation) as a baseline were excluded due to the known issues in contrasting semantics to low-level baselines, whereby key regions may be missed due to the high level of semantic processing present during rest (Visser et al., 2010). In addition to a substantial update to the timeframe of study inclusion, the present approach differs from the prior meta-analysis by Binder et al. (2009) on two critical aspects: 1) both verbal and nonverbal stimuli are included as semantic cognition is considered inherently multimodal, and 2) it is not required that the baseline control task be at least as difficult as the semantic task (as this induces a difficulty difference) but merely that a high level baseline be employed.

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