Additional ROI analysis for heteromodal hub and spoke sites were conducted to further characterise the effects of semantic relation and task knowledge. We identified coordinates for hub ROIs from meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies on semantic cognition. We examined (i) left ventral ATL (MNI coordinates −41, −15, −31) from an average of peaks across eight studies that included a semantic > non-semantic contrast (Rice, Hoffman, Binney, & Lambon Ralph, 2018), (ii) left lateral ATL (MNI coordinates −54, 6, −28) from an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of 97 studies (Rice, Lambon Ralph, & Hoffman, 2015), and (iii) left AG (MNI coordinates −48, −68, 28) from an ALE meta-analysis of 386 studies (Binder, Desai, Graves, & Conant, 2009; Humphreys & Lambon Ralph, 2014). We created these ROIs by placing a binarised spherical mask with a radius of 3 mm, centred on the MNI coordinates in each site. For spoke ROIs, masks corresponding to primary auditory, motor and visual cortex were generated from Juelich histological atlas in standard space in FSLview, with each mask thresholded at 25% probability and binarized using fslmaths.

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