Design and data collection
This protocol is extracted from research article:
The impact of COVID-19 on healthcare workers’ anxiety levels
Z Gesundh Wiss, Jan 4, 2021; DOI: 10.1007/s10389-020-01466-x

As the COVID-19 virus is transmitted from person to person, competent authorities recommend people to stay at home during the pandemic in order to minimize face-to-face interaction. Therefore, an electronic survey was created by the researchers to involve the participants in the study. Their responses were also received online. The study focused on healthcare workers in Turkey during the COVID-19 pandemic, and it used the snowball sampling method. The survey was shared on health-related social media platforms (such as WhatsApp, Instagram, Twitter), and the respondents were asked to share it with others. Before starting the survey, the participants were informed about the purpose and content of the study, emphasizing that participation was on a voluntary basis. The participants’ identity information was not recorded in the survey.

The sample size was calculated as 677 using the formula with an unknown universe. The snowball method, one of the probabilistic sampling types, was used. The sample consisted of healthcare workers from any healthcare institution/organization who agreed to participate in the study. The study was conducted between 18 and 25 April 2020 with a total of 710 participants who agreed to participate in the study.

Inclusion Criteria:

Currently working at any healthcare institution/organization,

Being willing to participate in the study.

The data were collected using a sociodemographic questionnaire prepared by the researchers, in line with the literature and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. It required around 5 minutes to fill out the data collection forms.

In this section, a total of 15 questions were asked. A total of seven questions were asked about age, gender, occupation, unit of work, marital status, having children and having chronic disease. In addition, eight questions were asked about the fear of coronavirus, staying anywhere outside home during the pandemic, being tested for COVID-19, having a colleague or relative being tested for COVID-19, currently or previously providing care/treatment to a COVID-19 patient, being trained/educated on how to approach patients who tested positive for COVID-19, needing psychological support during the pandemic, and considering measures for healthcare workers as adequate.

It was developed by Spielberger et al. (1970) to determine people’s state (Kvaal et al. 2005) and trait anxiety levels and adapted to Turkish by Öner and LeCompte (1985). The inventory consists of two separate scales. The State Anxiety Inventory is a self-assessment scale consisting of short and clear expressions to measure how the individual feels at a particular time and under certain conditions. It consists of questions that can be answered as “(1) not at all,” (2) “somewhat,” (3) “moderately so” and (4) “very much” to evaluate the anxiety levels of individuals included in a study. The Trait Anxiety Inventory mainly evaluates feelings of apprehension, tension, irritability and anxiety. It measures how an individual feels independent of their current state and conditions. The STAI is composed of two separate scales with a total of 40 items, whereby the State Anxiety Inventory consists of 20 items to evaluate how individuals feel “now,” whereas the Trait Anxiety Inventory consists of 20 items to evaluate how individuals feel “in general.” The State Anxiety Inventory rates one’s emotions or behaviors according to their severity, and the Trait Anxiety Inventory rates them according to their frequency, using a 4-point Likert-type scale. Each STAI item is given a weighted score of 1 to 4. Scores for both scales range from a minimum of 20 to a maximum of 80, where a higher score indicates a greater level of anxiety. STAI scores are interpreted as follows: 0–19, normal or no anxiety; 20–39, mild to moderate anxiety; 40–59, moderate to severe anxiety; 60–79, severe anxiety; and 80 and above, panic and crisis (Çakır and Özbayır 2018). The Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the State and Trait Anxiety Inventories were calculated as 0.793 and 0.869, respectively.

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