Cells were cultured in phenol red-free DMEM for 15 h, then the medium was harvested for the measurement of metabolic indicators, including lactate production, glucose consumption, and 2-PG level. The glucose, lactate, and 2-BGP levels in the medium were quantified using glucose assay kit, lactate Assay kit, and 2-PG kit according to the manufacturer’s instructions (BioVision, Mountain View, USA).

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