The questionnaires were administered in Chinese and were translated from English by following the standard back-translation procedure. Unless otherwise stated, all measures used a 5-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree).

Weekly self-regulation was assessed with a 12-item scale (Gaumer and Noonan 2018), which includes four dimensions: plan, monitor, control, and reflect. We adjusted the items to fit the weekly context. Examples are “This week, I planned out projects that I want to complete” (plan), “This week, I kept track of how my projects are going” (monitor). The Cronbach’s alpha for subscales were plan (α ranged from .705 to .759), monitor (α ranged from .724 to .830), control (α ranged from .777 to .827), and reflect (α ranged from .702 to .722).

Weekly academic performance was assessed with a 6-item scale (Williams and Anderson 1991). An example item is “This week, I fulfilled all the requirements of my study work”, Cronbach’s α ranged from .757 to .803.

Weekly psychological well-being was measured with a 3-item scale (Zhang et al. 2015). An example item is “I felt that I have grown as a person”, Cronbach’s α ranged from .695 to .782. For this construct, all measures used a 7-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree, 7 = strongly agree).

Optimism was assessed with the 8 items scale (Scheier and Carver 1985). A sample item is “In uncertain times, I usually expect the best”, Cronbach’s α ranged from .800 to .837.

Social support was measured with the 4 items scale (Zimet et al. 1988). An example item is “My friends really try to help me”, Cronbach’s α ranged from .850 to .858.

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