For each carbapenem prescription, the AST collected the following data: patient demographics, pre-existing illness such as cancer or transplant, renal impairment, previous colonization or infection with an ESBLE within the last 3 months (ESBLE carriage), characteristics of the infection which motivated the prescription of carbapenem, and the type of pathogen (if the episode was documented) and its antibiotic susceptibility. ESBLE detection and in vitro susceptibility testing involved a double-disk synergy test between clavulanic acid and extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ceftazidime and ceftriaxone) and the disk diffusion method, respectively, as recommended by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) [25].

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