Phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract of A. aspera, L. inermis and A. indica leaves was performed using standard procedures to determine the active constituents present in the extracts. Tests for alkaloids, saponins, phenols, tannins, anthraquinones, terpenoids, flavonoids and steroids were performed following the methods developed before [10].

Extracts from plants were dissolved in HCl and filtered for the following tests.

Mayer’s Test: Filtrates were treated with Mayer’s reagent (Potassium Mercuric Iodide). Yellow precipitation indicates the presence of alkaloids in the extracts.

Dragendroff’s Test: Filtrates were treated with Dragendroff’s reagent (solution of Potassium Bismuth Iodide). Red precipitation indicates the presence of alkaloids in the extracts.

Extract was shaken with 2 ml of water. If foam produced persists for 10 min, it indicates the presence of saponins.

0.5 G crude extracts was treated with a few drops of 2% FeCl3 bluish green or black colouration indicated presence of phenolic compound

Each plant extract was stirred with 1 ml of distilled water, after filtered, ferric chloride reagent added to the filtrate. A blue-black, green, or blue-green precipitate indicates the presence of tannins.

Chloroform was added to the extracts and shaken for 5 min. The extract was filtered and shaken with an equal volume of 100% ammonia solution. A pink, violet or red colour in the ammoniacal layer (lower layer) indicated the presence of free anthraquinones.

Each extract was dissolved in chloroform, then 3 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid was added carefully and examined: reddish brown coloration indicates the presence of terpenoid.

Chloroform 10 ml was added to 2 ml of all three plant extracts. To these extracts 1 ml of acetic anhydride was added and then 2 ml of concentrated sulphuric acid was added along the sides of the test tube. Colour formation at the junction is noted. The appearance of blue green colour indicates the presence of steroids.

Extracts were treated with drops of sodium hydroxide solution. Formation of intense yellow colour, which becomes colourless on addition of dilute acid, shows presence of flavonoids.

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