There is no suitable validated SES measurement to use in the Syrian population as we cannot ask directly about the monthly salary due to cultural norms that make it inappropriate. In addition, there are huge differences between the normal wage in Syria and other countries. Therefore, SES was assessed through three criteria; 1) the level of education, 2) the profession of the participant or that of the working family member/partner, 3) the monthly income adequacy of the individual who is the main source of income in the household. SES was then divided into four different categories: lower, upper-lower, middle, and upper.

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