The extraction of each plant material was done following methods previously used with slight modifications [9]. Each plant material powder was successively extracted with three organic solvents in order of increasing polarity (petroleum ether ➔ethyl acetate➔methanol➔aqueous). Three hundred grams of each powder was soaked in 1.5 l of petroleum ether separately and kept on a VWR DS 500 orbital shaker for 72 h. The extracts were filtered using WhatmanNo1 filter paper. The residue was further extracted twice with fresh petroleum ether. Then, all the filtrates were mixed. The resulting residues were air-dried and further extracted with ethyl acetate, methanol, and sterile water using the procedure employed for petroleum ether extraction. Organic solvents were then removed from the extracts using rotavapor and the extracts were kept for several days in a water bath (40 °C). After complete drying, the yield of each extract was measured separately, and the extracts were stored at 40c until used for further study. The dried extracts of A. aspera, L. inermis and A. indica were dissolved in 10% DMSO and kept at 40c until used for the experiments.

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