The Kaplan–Meier model available in R package “survival” was used to calculate overall survival (OS) plus log-rank test to compare survival time between different groups. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis were performed by R package “clusterprofiler”, with the cut-off value of FDR less than 0.05 [26]. The MAF data was analyzed using an R package ‘maftools’ [27]. Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) analysis was used to evaluate correlations between continuous variables (e.g. TMB, CD8+ T cells, genes expression). For analyzing the levels of CD8 + T cells and TMB in different groups, the Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare the average between the two groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used for the comparison of more than two groups. Clinical characteristics were estimated by univariate Cox regression followed by multivariate Cox regression to identify independent prognostic factors. The chi-square independence test evaluates if two categorical variables such as immunotypes and pathological stages are related in any way. All statistical analyses in this study was performed using Python version 3.7.1 ( or R version 3.4.3 (, unless mentioned otherwise. Conventionally, the P < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant.

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