We did not conduct a meta-analysis because of inconsistencies in measured interventions outcomes. The articles combination was based on the classification of: outcomes, the type of intervention, and its impact. The outcomes of the studies were categorized into two groups: clinical and care process outcomes. Clinical outcomes are used to quantify or describe the severity of the disease, such as blood pressure. Care process outcomes are associated with improving the quality of care and physician–patient interaction [26]. We used the Sign test to assess the effect of proposed intervention in either direction (e.g. positive or negative) for clinical and care process outcomes.

Based on the type of IT-based tools used in the interventions, we classified the studies as follows:

Mobile-based tools (i.e. educational contents which were delivered via smart phone applications or SMS).

Wearable devices (i.e. hardware devices which can be used for automatic recording of physiological changes, such as Holter monitor devices).

Computer systems, which enable the patient to record and transmit data and through the internet.

Multi-component tools, which is a combination of more than one tool from the above mentioned tools [2729].

We used the technology performance framework to classify IT-based systems according to their function. This means classification of these systems based on whether they could:

Inform: Delivery media (e.g. text, voice, photo, and video).

Instruct: Offer instructions to the user

Record: Capture data entered by the user

Display: Show or output data entered by the user

Guide: Deliver guidance based on user provided information

Remind/Alert: Provide alerts and reminders for specific tasks or at specific times to the user

Communicate: Provide communication path between the user/patient and health care providers [2830]

The impact of interventions was defined as: (1) positive (i.e. statistically significant) and (2) no effect (i.e. not statistically significant).

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