Following data cleaning, the authors first conducted a series of exploratory item factor analyses (EFAs), including unidimensional, 2- and 3-Factor solutions. Consistent with previous studies, we used a combination of statistical factor enumeration strategies and theory [18]. The number of factors to extract was guided by the theoretical model utilized when developing the questionnaire. Targeted EFA rotations allowed the authors to explore these theoretical models of stress and burnout (e.g. reasons, reactions, and responses to stress). The optimal model was chosen based off of a combination of model fit (utilizing the Akaike and Bayesian Information Criteria [AIC and BIC, respectively], and Velicer’s minimum average partial [MAP] test, all of which favor models with lower values) and interpretability of the factor solution.

The optimal model was then fit using a confirmatory item factor analysis (CFA), and used for reliability and validity evaluations. If significant differences emerged between the EFA and CFA results, further item and scale refinement occurred. Then, we used item response theory (IRT) for scoring. The final items were calibrated using the graded response model [19]. Given that our theoretical model suggested potential multidimensionality, we did not restrict the GRM to the unidimensional case but would allow multidimensional IRT if indicated from the EFA and CFA results. Other IRT assumptions were also evaluated, including visual inspection of responses of non-parametric response curves for monotonicity and inspection of specific-factor loadings and residuals from the CFA results to examine local dependence.

Cronbach’s alpha and McDonald’s omega was used to index internal consistency reliability, and Pearson correlation coefficients with external measures were used to index validity. T-scores derived from the optimal model were also used in known group’s discriminant validity t-test evaluations. The authors hypothesized that the optimal model for the MSSS would exhibit high internal consistency (α > 0.80), and correlate moderately with validity measures (r > 0.50) [20]. The authors also hypothesized that there would be at least a small observed effect size difference (d > 0.20) between known groups.

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