In addition to new items of medical student stress, the authors also administered the following socio-demographic form and legacy measures to establish preliminary convergent validity evidence: 1) Socio-Demographic Form: This included year in medical school, gender, race (either Caucasian or non-Caucasian), and religious belief; 2) Health and Lifestyle Behaviors. Using single-item statements with a 5-point Likert response scale, the authors asked participants about their sleep and exercise patterns, including questions on frequency of exercise, average total hour of sleep per night, and impact from sleep and exercise on stress; 3) Burnout. To measure burnout, the authors administered the 10-item Burnout Measure Short Version [15]; 4) Perceived Stress. To gauge stress levels, the authors used the Perceived Stress Scale-4 (PSS-4) [16]; 5) Anxiety. To assess anxiety, the authors used the 4-item PROMIS Anxiety Short Form, which was drawn from a 29-item bank [17]; 6) Visual Analog Scale (VAS). To assess current stress levels, the authors used a VAS in the form of a single question which asked participants to rate their perceived stress levels on a 10-point Likert-type scale ranging from no stress at all (1) to worst stress imaginable (10). See Table 1 for the validity measure characteristics (domains, number of items, and reliabilities) used in this study.

Validity measure characteristics

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