All analyses were performed using SPSS version 25.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). Continuous variables with normal distributions are expressed as mean ± standard deviation; categorical variables are expressed as frequency and percentage. Paired χ2 tests (McNemar tests) were used to assess differences between echocardiogram and surgical histopathology results. Univariate comparisons were evaluated with χ2 tests or Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables, as appropriate. Variables with theoretical clinical importance and those that achieved a P < 0.10 in the univariate analysis were included in the binary logistic regression analysis. A forward conditional method was used to select the most useful predictors for inconsistency between echocardiographic and surgical findings. Results were considered statistically significant at the 0.05 level.

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