We consecutively collected data from 313 consecutive IE cases through the electronic medical records system of Nanfang Hospital, a comprehensive teaching hospital, between June 2001 and June 2018. The partial results of this study were published in 2019 [11]. We excluded 11 cases of prosthetic valve IE and 2 cases with a history of pacemaker transplantation.

Data included demographic information, predisposing factors, clinical manifestations, echocardiography results, pathologic findings, and in-hospital mortality.

This clinical study was a retrospective and descriptive study performed in accordance with the principles of the Helsinki declaration.

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