The CKD-3D study is an observational, multicenter, prospective cohort study aimed at identifying the CKD-related disability in patients aged 75 years or older discharged from geriatric acute care wards of participating hospitals. At the baseline, the day before discharge, participants will undergo clinical and laboratory evaluations and then will be followed up at face-to-face visits at months 6 and 12 following enrollment and through intermediate telephone follow-up at 3 and 9 months following recruitment. Figure 1 shows the flowchart of the observational clinical study.

CKD-3D study design. eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; ACR, albumin-to-creatinine ratio; MMSE, mini-mental state examination; GDS, Geriatric Depression Scale; BADL, basic activities of daily living; IADL, instrumental activities of daily living; CIRS, Cumulative Illness Rating Scale; MNA, mini nutritional assessment; SPPB, short physical performance battery; HRQoL, health-related quality of life

The study design complies with the Declaration of Helsinki and Good Clinical Practice Guidelines. The study protocol was approved by ethics committees at all participating institutions. Patients are requested to sign a written informed consent before entering the study.

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