Samples were collected using a variety of fishing techniques, and specimens were euthanized with clove oil or MS-222 anaesthetic solutions, in accordance with recommended guidelines for the use of fishes in research (Bennett et al., 2016). A small piece of muscle tissue or fin was taken from the right side of each specimen, or the entire fish was preserved in 95% ethanol in the field. The samples were stored at low temperatures at each of the following institutions: (1) NRF-South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity (NRF-SAIAB), Makhanda (Grahamstown), South Africa; (2) Ichthyological Collection of the Biology Institute of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; (3) Royal Museum for Central Africa (RMCA), Tervuren, Belgium; (4) American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), New York, USA; (5) National Museum of Natural History (USNM), Washington, USA and (6) Oregon State University (OS), Corvallis, USA.

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