Our meta-analysis was performed with Review Manager 5.3. Heterogeneity was assessed by calculating the I2 index. The fixed- or random-effects model was utilized, as appropriate. Sensitivity analysis was used to evaluate the impact of each study by eliminating studies one at a time or alternating between random-effects and fixed-effects models. The findings from the meta-analysis are graphically represented by a forest plot. Publication bias was determined and presented using a funnel plot. For categorical outcomes, an odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI (for observational studies) was calculated for each study. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) of different studies and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the frequency of clinical deaths in patients with CKD complicated with COVID-19. All p-values in this study were two tailed, and statistical significance was set at ≤ 0.05.

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