Data are presented as mean ± SD. All in vitro experiments were independently performed at least twice, and a representative result is presented. The data were calculated or analyzed using Microsoft Excel software (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, MA, USA). The IC50 values were determined by nonlinear regression analysis using GraphPad Prism 8 (GraphPad Software, Inc., La Jolla, CA, USA). Statistical significance was determined using a two-tailed Student's t-test or one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using GraphPad Prism 8. An F-test for equality of variances was performed to ensure the same variance of two test groups. The Shapiro-Wilk test was performed to determine whether the in vitro or in vivo data follows a normal distribution. A P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

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