Relative levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA copy number) were determined by qPCR as previously described 30, 31. Briefly, total DNA was extracted from cells or from renal tissues using a Universal Genomic DNA Kit (CW2298S, CWBIO, Beijing, China), and 10 ng of the DNA was used for qPCR analysis. For human cells, the mitochondrial ND1 gene (mtND1) was used to measure mtDNA copy number and was normalized to nuclear beta-2 microglobulin (B2M) 30. For mouse tissues, the mitochondrially encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (COX2) was used to measure mtDNA copy number and was normalized to the nuclear ribosomal protein s18 (rps18) 31. The sequences of the primers used in the mtDNA assay are shown in Table S2.

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