Each experiment was conducted at least three times independently. Results were presented as the mean ± SEM and statistical significance was analyzed using GraphPad 7.0 software. Statistical significance between groups was calculated by Student's t-test for two groups or by one-way ANOVA for more than two groups. The survival rates were determined by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ns, no significant difference).

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