Metformin hydrochloride and SN38 were purchased from Sigma Aldrich (USA). BCA protein quantitation kit and normal goat serum were obtained from Solarbio Life Sciences (Beijing, China). ELISA kits (IFN-γ) were purchased from Elabscience Biotechnology Co., Ltd. Anti-PD-L1 was obtained from BioXCell. ER-Tracker Red probe was purchased from Shanghai Maokang Biotechnology Co., Ltd. Other reagents were obtained from standard suppliers and used as received.

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